Absolutely. There are several things which go into determining who is an employee and who is an independent contractor. But the one thing the court says we can ignore is what your boss says about it. Employers in certain business fields are notorious for calling employees independent contractors. And many employees go along with it to avoid having taxes withheld. It really comes down to an issue of control. The more control your boss has over you and how, when, and where you do your work the more likely it is that you are a legally an employee, even if you have a contract saying you an independent contractor.
Certain industries are more likely than not to have this come up. Sales representatives, construction workers, and truck drivers seem to encounter this more than most other people. Occasionally we see health care facilities claim that employees working PRN are independent contractors but that’s so laughable that it doesn’t come up often.